The articles in this section offer research findings that explore the value of out-of-class experiences for a variety of educational outcomes. Suggestions are provided for how institutions can enhance students’ out-of-class learning.

Informal Education and Learning

Discussion of the definition of informal education and its foundations.

Student Learning Outside the Classroom: Transcending Artificial Boundaries

Summary of the research on the contributions of out-of-class experiences to valued outcomes of postsecondary education. In addition, out-of-class experiences linked to persistence and educational attainment also are discussed.



Columbia Earthscape (Columbia University)

The site offers a searchable database: Columbia earthscape, a comprehensive aggregation of resources in the Earth and Environmental Sciences.

Virtual Geoscience Library (University of Michigan)

Journal of Geoscience Education

The page is the home of the Journal of Geoscience Education (JGE), a peer-reviewed publication for geoscience education research at the undergraduate and pre-college levels.

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Many instructors consciously avoid controversial issues in the classroom because of the difficulty involved in managing heated discussions. However, controversy can be a useful, powerful, and memorable tool to promote learning. Research has demonstrated that conflict or controversy during classroom discussion can promote cognitive gains in complex reasoning, integrated thinking, and decision-making. The links in this section offer guidance for how instructors can successfully manage discussions on controversial topics.

Making the Most of Hot Moments in the Classroom (CRLT)

CRLT developed this brief handout to offer instructors ways to make the most of "hot moments" as learning opportunities. It includes specific strategies to prepare for, respond to, and follow up after eruptions of tension or conflict in the classroom. 

Managing Hot Moments in the Classroom (Warren, 2000)

The challenges of dealing with “hot moments” are 1) to manage ourselves so as to make them useful and 2) to find the teaching opportunities to help students learn in and from the moment. This resource suggests tips for instructors faced with hot moments in the classroom. Read more »


Association of Teachers of French

Instructional resources, cultural and educational instituations, and professional organizations

University of Ottowa

Instructional resources for teaching French as a second language

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The resources on this page include links to European archives, disciplinary organizations and journals, and searchable databases. Includes some links to country-specific and region-specific (e.g., Slavic, Russian, East and West European) resources.

Council for European Studies at Columbia University

Links to archives in Europe, European disciplinary organizations, online documents, journals, and research resources; resources on East European Studies and West European Studies

Slavic and East European Collections at Yale University Library

Links to libraries, associations, institutions, archives, databases, journals, resources on specific countries

Russian and East European Studies Virtual Library at University of Pittsburgh

Search this database of indexed and annotated links by selecting region, culture, subject, and time period categories, or by using keywords.

WWW Virtual Library: West European Studies at University of Pittsburgh

Resources arranged by academic discipline, organizations and centers focusing on West European Studies; resources about the European Union