These links describe ways to construct and react to assignments based on student written work, including creation of questions, strategies for grading, and ways to respond effectively to student writing.

Responding to Student Writing (Sweetland Writing Center, University of Michigan)
Practical advice for grading student written work effectively and efficiently.

Responding to Student Writing - A Sample Commenting Protocol
Guidelines for how to write instructive, targeted comments on student work: how to focus your feedback, craft headnotes, and write efficient marginal comments.

Rubrics for Grading and Providing Feedback (Sweetland Writing Center, University of Michigan)
Includes examples of analytic, trait, holistic, numeric and grid rubrics.   Read more »