Evaluating Student Learning/Academic Integrity


This occasional paper discusses research showing how student personal response systems (often called 'clickers') can support student learning. It gives specific strategies for using clickers to assess student knowledge prior to the course, check students' understanding of new material, administer tests, document attendance, and more. The paper also discusses challenges and proposes best practices for using clickers for a range of purposes. 


This Occasional Paper is intended to inform efforts to address academic integrity at U-M by: 

  • providing an overview of current research on academic integrity; 
  • summarizing instructional best practices for promoting academic integrity and deterring and detecting academic dishonesty; 
  • describing institutional options for promoting academic integrity and for dealing with academic dishonesty; 
  • linking readers to other resources on academic integrity

Creating high quality educational assessments requires both art and science: the art of creatively engaging students in assessments that they view as fair and meaningful, and that produce relevant data about student achievement; and the science of assessment design, item writing, and grading procedures (Worthen, Borg, & White, 1993). This Occasional Paper provides an overview of the science of developing valid and reliable exams, especially multiple-choice and essay items. Additionally, the paper describes key issues related to grading: holistic and trait-analytic rubrics, and normative and criterion grading systems.